Blog > Engineering > Software Engineering > Bringing machine learning models into production

Bringing machine learning models into production

Here at Engel & Völkers Technologies our mission is to enhance user experience for our real estate agents and property owners. One part of this is to provide data based tools. As a first task out of this mission we built a predictive model for property price evaluation. During this process we came up with the following model for implementing machine learning tools in a real time productive environment.

Introduction

Developing and bringing a machine learning model into production is a task with a lot of challenges, like model and attribute selection, dealing with missing values, normalization and others. Finding a workflow that puts all the gears, from data preprocessing and analysis over building models and selecting the best performing one to serving the model in a real time API, into motion is the one we want to share here.

 Hamburg
- Machine learning for production

Life cycle of a machine learning model

The life cycle of machine learning is basically described by the iteration of the following four steps:

  • Data extraction

  • Data preprocessing

  • Model training

  • Model evaluation

Each of these steps is under constant evaluation in case model performance can be enhanced by adding different data attributes or different preprocessing methods.For our approach we split the process of modelling into two other parts. Part one contains the above mentioned four steps and we call it Manual Run Modeling and step two is automating the steps of part one.


Manual Run Modeling

In this manual part we first analyse our new task and then come up with a hypothesis we want to prove and test.


Development and Prototyping Environment

First we set up a development environment for working on the new task. For this we spin up a Jupyter notebook server, which can easily be deployed on Google Cloud AI Platform. The notebook approach enables us to develop fast and share results with the team using a browser. With the ability to easily visualize data online in a notebook, this approach is especially useful in the data extraction and preprocessing process.


Data preparation and visualization

Python provides some nice packages for generating graphics on data for faster insights, which speeds up our prototyping process in the notebook. We are especially fond of using Seaborn. After loading the data identified for this model into the notebook, normally using a dataframe, we begin by looking at each attribute and its values, often in combination with the other attributes. For this first overview we use a pairplot provided by Seaborn.

In combination with other visualizations, such as e.g. a correlation matrix we decide which attributes to use and how to handle outliers and missing values. After this process we then use one hot encoding for categorical attributes and normalize the continuous attributes to get an input into our models.

 Hamburg
- Example of attribute visualization in python using seaborn

Model Selection and Evaluation

When the data is ready we choose several models to find a solution for our problem. These models can range from a multilinear regression model over random forests to deep neural networks with tensorflow. After splitting the data for training, evaluation and test we decide on a measure each model has to optimize for, e.g. mean squared error or precision, depending on the kind of problem. Once we identify the best model - in our opinion - from our choice of models we start by transforming the code for Google Cloud AI Platform.


RT Prediction Deployment

After manual evaluation of preprocessing and modeling, we start the task of automating training and deployment for our production environment. This can be split into three tasks:

  • Training the model with hyperparameter optimization on Google Cloud AI platform

  • Deploying the model on Google Cloud AI platform

  • Deploying an API to access the model for real time predictions


Training on Google Cloud AI Platform

After deciding on a model to go forward into production with, we optimize our code for data extraction and preprocessing to make it reusable and compliant with Google Cloud AI Platform rules. This means basically we have to create a Python package out of the first three steps.

A project could be set up as shown in the picture below.

 Hamburg
- Sample structure of AI platform package

This Python package is then deployed to Google Cloud platform and executed there. If you have custom packages you need to include in this process there is an option to supply those too. An example call for training on the cloud would then look like the following example:

 Hamburg
- Sample call for training a model on AI platform

One advantage of using Google Cloud AI platform is that there is the possibility of using automated hyperparameter tuning for models. This enables us to train a model automatically with different configurations and then select the one performing best for the defined measure in hptuning_config.yaml.

 Hamburg
- Example of hptuning_config.yaml

In the AI platform dashboard you can then see, which hyperparameter combination of your defined values in params had the best results for the defined hyperparameterMetricTag and goal.

 Hamburg
- Example of AI platform job dashboard

The identified model is then ready to be deployed to the platform, where Google provides an URL to access the model in real time.


Deploying the model on GCP

Deploying to production is done with a Jenkins job. We use Jenkinsfile to define our jobs as part of our code. A model deployment consists of the following steps:

  • Copying the model to the correct GCP bucket (differs for our three development systems development, staging and production)

  • Deploy model to AI platform using a gcloud command

    • Test model with a prepared test dataset
 Hamburg
- gcloud command to deploy model on AI platform

If all of these steps are successful the model is ready for usage in the specified environment via an URL endpoint.


Deploying the Real Time API

Since the model is deployed and accessible using an URL endpoint, we now have to build a transformation API that takes the input data and transforms it into the needed format for the model endpoint, calls the model and returns it's result. To make using the model easier for other services, our data entry format is JSON. This makes the data human readable and changes to any steps concerning the model (except changing the number of attributes) can be done without dependencies on our client services.


REST Service

As framework for our REST API we chose Flask, since it is lightweight, flexible, easy to use and also written in Python. Since API and model are written in the same language we can make use of the preprocessing from the training package we needed for training above. The main work here lies in adapting the code to only run one single event, instead of the batch prediction, used to validate the result during training.

For stability and security reasons we added some additional checks:

  • JWT token authorization with Flask-JWT

  • Input format checks

    • all mandatory fields in request

    • filling in default values for optional fields

    • checking values for validity (e.g. range or location checks)

We also created an extra package containing all transformation functions, we use in several of our models. This package contains, e.g. min-max-normalization and distance calculation functions. 

Since speed is important in this component, we refrained from using database calls and instead store all needed data for enriching and transforming the incoming data inside a cache. After receiving the prediction from the model, we sometimes qualify the results for regression models, by adding a confidence value. This helps our clients to better understand the results and decide on how they want to use them, especially if they are meant to be shown to end users.

Each of our responses has its own error code and message that is supplied in the result. The result is again in JSON format. It basically consists of the fields:

  • success: true or false, indicating result of request

  • message: (error) message for response

  • prediction object: JSON object of successful response including confidence score if applicable

Deployment to our production system is then handled by a Jenkins job with the following steps:

  • Unit and integration testing of Flask API

  • Building a Docker container for the Flask API

  • Pushing Container Image to GCP project repository

  • Deploying Container to Google Cloud Run

By using Cloud Run we do not need to worry about hardware configuration and can focus on optimizing the API and the model.


Conclusion

By following this process we make sure that the time spent on the necessary things, beside building a model is kept to a minimum and does not include managing underlying infrastructure resources or availability concerns. Especially the part after the manual data and model selection process is usable as a best practice template to fasten the deployment process. This is thanks to the tools provided by Google and deliberately choosing to extract reusable functions into their own Python package.


Links:

https://jupyter.org/

 https://seaborn.pydata.org/

https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/cloudml-samples/tree/master/sklearn/sklearn-template/template

https://cloud.google.com/ai-platform/training/docs/using-hyperparameter-tuning

 https://www.jenkins.io/

https://www.jenkins.io/doc/book/pipeline/jenkinsfile/

https://flask.palletsprojects.com/en/1.1.x/

https://pythonhosted.org/Flask-JWT/

https://cloud.google.com/run

Contact us now
Engel & Völkers
Technology
  • Vancouverstraße 2a
    20457 Hamburg
    Deutschland

Follow us on social media